Cell Organelles and their functions

The cell is the smallest unit that is considered alive. It is composed of organelles that work together to keep the cell alive. Let’s take a look at the following cell organelles and see how they help keep the cell alive. 


Cell membrane







Golgy complex

Endoplasmic reticulum,


cell organelles

Cell membrane

The cell membrane is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells. It is made up of a phospholipid bilayer, which is a double layer of phospholipid molecules.

The cell membrane is responsible for a number of important functions, including:

  • Protecting the cell from its environment
  • Regulating the flow of materials into and out of the cell
  • Providing a surface for cell-to-cell communication
  • Allowing the cell to sense its environment


The nucleus is also home to the chromosomes, which are structures that contain the cell’s DNA. The chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein, and they are organized into two sets of 23 chromosomes. Each set of chromosomes is inherited from one parent.


Chloroplasts are organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy.

Chloroplasts are essential for plant life. They are responsible for producing the food that plants need to grow and survive. Without chloroplasts, plants would not be able to photosynthesize, and they would not be able to produce food.


The mitochondria are often called the “powerhouses of the cell” because they are responsible for producing the majority of the cell’s energy. They do this by converting food molecules into ATP, which is the cell’s main energy currency.


Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They are found in all eukaryotic cells, and they play a role in the breakdown of cellular components. Lysosomes are also involved in the recycling of cellular materials, and they can help to protect the cell from harmful substances.


A ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that translates messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Ribosomes are essential to all known forms of life and are the most common molecular machine in the cell. They are found in all cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes) and in many cells without a nucleus (prokaryotes).

Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, a large subunit and a small subunit. The large subunit contains the catalytic center where the mRNA is read and the proteins are assembled. The small subunit binds to the mRNA and helps to position it correctly for translation.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus has three main functions:

  • Protein processing: The Golgi apparatus receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are then modified, such as by being glycosylated (adding sugar molecules), or by being folded into their correct shape.
  • Sorting and packaging: The Golgi apparatus sorts proteins into different vesicles, which are then transported to their final destination.
  • Secretion: The Golgi apparatus releases proteins and lipids from the cell.


Endoplasmic reticulum ER

The ER is divided into two types: the rough ER and the smooth ER. The rough ER is covered with ribosomes, which are responsible for protein synthesis. The smooth ER is not covered with ribosomes and is involved in lipid metabolism and calcium storage.

The ER plays a key role in the synthesis of proteins. Proteins are made on the ribosomes of the rough ER. The ER then modifies the proteins, such as by adding sugar molecules or folding them into their correct shape.