The Skeletal System- Axial – Appendicular

The human skeleton is a complex and amazing structure that provides support, protection, and movement. It is also a living organ that is constantly being remodeled to maintain its strength and flexibility.

The human skeleton is made up of 206 bones. These bones are divided into two main groups: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.

Axial skeleton

The axial skeleton is the central part of the skeleton and includes the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum.

  • Skull: The skull is made up of 22 bones, including the cranium and the facial bones.
  • Spine: The spine is made up of 33 bones, called vertebrae.
  • Ribs: The ribs are 12 pairs of bones that protect the lungs and heart.
  • Sternum: The sternum is a flat bone in the center of the chest.
axial skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is the part of the skeleton that is attached to the axial skeleton. It includes the arms, legs, hands, and feet.

  • Arms: The arms are made up of the humerus, radius, ulna, and carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
  • Legs: The legs are made up of the femur, tibia, fibula, and tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.
  • Hands: The hands are made up of the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
  • Feet: The feet are made up of the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.

The skeleton system has many important functions, including:

  • Support: The skeleton provides support for the body and helps to maintain its shape.
  • Protection: The skeleton protects the vital organs of the body, such as the brain, heart, and lungs.
  • Movement: The skeleton provides a framework for the muscles to attach to, which allows for movement.
  • Storage: The skeleton stores minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus.
  • Blood cell production: The red bone marrow in the skeleton produces red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body.