4 Spheres of Earth

Learn about the four Spheres of the Earth.
The earth can be divided into four major spheres.

The biosphere which means life.
The hydrosphere which makes up all the water of the earth.
The atmosphere which are the gases that surround the earth.
The geosphere which is all of the rocks, soil, and layers of the earth.

These four spheres of the earth allow life to exist on planet earth.

spheres of earth

The names of each of these spheres come from Greek words that describe what they’re made of: ‘Geo’ for ‘ground,’ ‘hydro’ for ‘water,’ ‘bio’ for ‘life’ and ‘atmo’ for ‘air.’

Let’s look at each of the four spheres in a bit more detail to gain a better understanding of how they help make up the earth.


Since ‘geo’ means ‘ground,’ the geosphere describes all of the rocks, minerals and ground that are found on and in Earth.

The geosphere includes the inner core, outer core, crust and mantle.

The geosphere also includes the ocean floor, all of the rocks on the surface, and all of the sand in the deserts.




The hydrosphere is made up of all the water on Earth. This includes all of the rivers, lakes, streams, oceans, groundwater, polar ice caps, glaciers and moisture in the air including rain and snow.

If you look at the Earth from space you will notice that it is blue in color because the Earth’s surface is over 70% water. Most of this water is found in our oceans.



Is the zone of life on Earth. The biosphere extends to any place where life of any kind might exist. This can be in the air, on the surface of the earth, or in our oceans.



The atmosphere is a layer of gasses surrounding a planet or other material body,

The atmosphere of the Earth is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%) with carbon dioxide and other gasses in trace amounts. These gasses are held in place by the pull of gravity.